Abrasive Jet Machining-Definition, Working Principle, Parts or Equipment, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages, PDF

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Abrasive Jet Machining:

This is non-conventional machining, Mechanical machining methods.

In this machining, the Abrasive particle size is 10-40 Micros.

Jet velocity will be 150 to 300 m/sec.

Used for superalloys and Hard Materials.


The Abrasive jet machining is the process of impinging the high-speed stream of abrasive particles by high-pressure gas or air on the work surface through a nozzle and metal removal occurs due to erosion caused by high-speed abrasive particles.

Because of repeated impacts small bits of material gets loosened which is carried away by jet and exposing the fresh surface to the jet.

Parts or Equipment:

Abrasive Jet Machining

1. Gas Supply:

Gas is supply to the system for the operation. Here we also use compressed air instead of other gas.

2. Filter:

Filter indicates the cleanness of the fuel supply. Here the work is to clean the fuel if there is any dust particles presence.

3. Pressure Gauge:

This device will check the required amount of pressure are there or not. Normally this device work is to check the pressure.

4. Regulator:

The regulator as the name indicates it controlling the flow. It controls the compressed air flowing through the pipe.

5. Mixing Chamber:

Here we supply the abrasive particles and there already the amount of compressed air comes from the pipe. Here both will get a mix that’s why this is called a Mixing chamber.

6. Nozzle:

This is made up of hard material. The dia of the nozzle is about 0.18 to 0.8 mm.

Working Principle / Operation / Diagram of Abrasive Jet Machining :

Abrasive Jet Machining

The figure shown is the above Abrasive jet Machining.

It consists of a mixing chamber, gas filter, pressure gauge, regulator, and the nozzle.

The filtered gas at a pressure of 2 to 8 kgf/cm2 is supplied to the mixing chamber containing the abrasive powder and vibrating at 50 Hz, where it mixes with abrasive particles and then enters into the connecting hose.

The abrasive and gas mixture comes out from the nozzle at a high velocity ranging from 150 to 300 meter/minute and impinges over the work surface causing abrasion action by repeated impacts and the material is removed by the erosion.

Abrasive power feed rate can be controlled by the amplitude of vibration of the mixing chamber. 

A pressure regulator controls the gas flow and pressure.

To control the size and shape of the cut, either workpiece or nozzle is moved by cams, pantographs, or any other suitable mechanism.

The carrier gas should be cheap and non-toxic and easily available, it is generally air or nitrogen.

Abrasive generally used are Aluminium oxide, Silicon carbide or glass powder.

The nozzle is generally made by harder material such as ceramic or tungsten carbide to reduce abrasion wear.

The material removal rate depends on the diameter of the nozzle, jet pressure, composition of mixtures, Hardness of abrasive particles and workpiece, Particle size, the velocity of jet and distance between work and nozzle.

Application, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Abrasive Jet Machining:


The machine uses for several purposes:

1. Cutting slots and thin section.

2. Contouring and drilling operation.

3. Producing shallow crevices and deburring.

4. Producing intricates hole shapes in a hard and brittle material.

5. Cleaning and polishing the plastic, nylon and Teflon component.

6. Frosting of the interior surface of glass tubes.

7. Etching of marking of glass cylinders.

8. Machining superalloys and refractory material.


1. The surface finish can be obtained smooth.

2. The cost of equipment is low.

3. Ability to cut fragile and heat sensitive material without damage.

4. Ability to cut intricates hole shapes in a hard and brittle material.

5. The main advantages are its flexibility, low heat production.


1. The material removal rate is low.

2. Poor machining accuracy.

3. High nozzle wear rate.

4. The soft material cannot be machined.

5. Additional cleaning of the work surface is required due to the sticking of abrasive grains in softer material.

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