Battery Ignition System-Definition, Main Parts, Working Diagram, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application, PDF

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Battery Ignition System:

Definition:

The battery ignition system is an ignition system in which we use the battery for the generation of electricity and further that electricity is used in cars, commercial vehicles.

Main Parts:

  • Ignition switch
  • Battery
  • Ignition coil
  • Ballast resistor
  • Contact breaker
  • Distributor
  • Capacitor
  • Spark Plug

Ignition switch:

It is used to turn on and off the ignition system.

The battery is connected to the primary winding of the ignition coil by the ignition switch and ballast resistor.

Battery:

It is a device which provides electrical energy for the ignition.

The battery is charged by a dynamo driven by the engine.

Generally, two types of batteries are used in spark ignition engine, lead acid battery & alkaline battery.

The lead acid battery is used in light duty commercial vehicle whereas

An alkaline battery is used in the heavy-duty commercial vehicle.

Ignition coil:

This ignition coil is the main body of the battery ignition system.

The purpose of the ignition coil to step up the battery voltage (6 or 12V) to a high voltage, which is sufficient to produce a spark at the spark plug.

Ballast resistor:

It is connected in series with primary winding to regulate the current in the primary winding.

This is made of iron. 

Contact breaker:

The contact breaker is regulated by the cam and when the breaker is open, current flows through the condenser and charges it.

Distributor:

The distributor is used in a multi-cylinder engine to regulate spark in each spark plug at correct sequence.

There are two types of distributor.

Carbon brush type and gap type.

Capacitor:

It is a simple electrical capacitor in which two metal plate are separated by an insulating material with a distance.

Spark Plug:

The spark plug is used to generate sparks to ignite the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. Each spark plug is connected to the distributor of the ignition system

Working Diagram:

In Battery ignition system when the ignition switch is on, the current from the battery starts flowing through the primary circuit & through ballast register, primary winding and contact breaker.

And then the current which is flowing through the primary winding induces a magnetic field around it.

The more will be current, the stronger will be its magnetic field.

Now the contact breaker opens, the current through the primary winding collapse and this immediate collapse in the current induces a voltage of about 300V in the primary winding.

This voltage induced in the winding charges, the capacitor to the much greater voltage than the battery.

As the capacitor charged, the current through the primary winding stops and the current starts to flow to the battery from the capacitor.

And,

battery ignition system

This reverses the direction of the current and magnetic field in the primary winding. Due to the collapsing and reversing of the current and magnetic field, a very high voltage of about 15000 to 30000 V induced in the secondary winding. 

The high voltage current induced in the secondary winding is transferred to the distributor through a high tension cable. 

The distributor has a rotor that rotates inside the distributor cap. The distributor cap has metallic segments embedded into it.

As the rotor rotates, it presses and opens the contact breaker point.

This allows the high tension current to transfer to the spark plugs through the metallic segments. 

As the high tension current reaches the Spark Plug, it produces the spark in the engine cylinder for the combustion of the air-fuel mixture.

Related articles:

“Magneto Ignition System-Definition, Main Parts, Working Diagram, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application PDF”

Advantages, Disadvantages, and Application of Battery Ignition System:

Advantages:

  • A Good spark available.
  • In battery ignition system current for a primary circuit is obtained by a battery.
  • Current for the primary circuit is obtained from the battery.

Disadvantages:

  • Efficiency decreased with a reduction in spark intensity.
  • Occupies more space.
  • Maintenance problems are more due to the battery.
  • Efficiency decreased with a reduction in spark intensity.

Application:

  • Commonly used in cars and light commercial vehicle.

Difference Between Battery Ignition System and Magneto Ignition System:

Sl No Battery Ignition System Magneto Ignition System
1. A battery is necessary, so difficult to start the engine when a battery is discharged. No battery is needed, so no problem of battery discharge
2. Maintenance problems are more due to the battery. Maintenance problems are less because of no battery.
3. Current for the primary circuit is obtained from the battery An electric circuit is generated by the magneto
4. Occupies more space. Occupies less space.
5. Commonly used in cars and light commercial vehicle. Mainly used in racing cars and two-wheelers
6. Efficiency decreased with a reduction in spark intensity Efficiency improves due to high-intensity spark.
7. A Good spark available During starting, quality of spark is poor due to low speed
8. In battery ignition system current for a primary circuit is obtained by a battery. In the magneto ignition system, the required electric current is generated by the magneto, which is an electric generator.

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