Forging-Definition, Process or Types, Operation, Defects, Disadvantages, PDF

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Forging Definition:

Forging is one of the forming processes.

This is a process in which metal deforms plastically to another requires shape and size with the help of hand or Machine forging with a certain temperature.

Hand Forging:

The workpiece is heated in the furnace after heating Keep the heated workpiece (with the support of blacksmith tongs) onto the Anvil and take the hammer are a strike on it, make the required shape and size.

Machine Forging:

In this process, the operation is performed by the machine but we (Human) regulates the machines.

Forging Process or Types / Operation:

  1. Open Dies Hammer or Smith Forging
  2. Impression Die Drop or Closed Die
  3. Press and
  4. Upset forging.

1. Open Dies Hammer or Smith Forging:

At early days we use this type of forging process. This is a very conventional type process.

In this process what we do once we heat the workpiece to required temperature than we put the workpiece on the anvil by the use of tongs. And now we strike on it with the use of hammer for the required shape and size and you might study in the diploma or Btech lab of forging.

The length of the workpiece decrease and crosssection area of the workpiece increases. This process does not require any external forging machine. Done by Normal Human.

This is a very simple type of process.

2. Impression Die Drop or Closed Die:

It gives a more accurate size. In this, we make a complex shape like a crank, connecting rod, wrench, etc. 

To perform the operation we must have two dies (Upper and lower) lower is fixed and upper is moveable. In this operation, the workpiece is under the die to perform the operation as you can think from the name.

There might be needed more than 2 operations to perform this process. You can see the diagram as mentioned.

3. Press forging:

The press forging is a little faster than the other two operations because in this we provide continuous squeezing action.

This is much faster than closed die because here only one squeeze is needed.

The final object we get from this process have good smooth, close tolerance and there is no such problem of alignment of die in this operation.

The operation forms only in a single squeeze.

4. Upset forging:

I am trying to understand you by a simple example. Have you seen cylinder head ?. Yes, you might. In that what we do is first, heat the only parts you want to change the shape.

Like take a rod and heat it the above parts and after heating just make the required shape and size that comes in upset forging process.

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Forging Defects:

The main defects of Forging:

  1. Unfilled sections
  2. Cold shut
  3. Scale pits
  4. Die shift
  5. Flakes
  6. Improper grain flow
  7. Surface cracking
  8. Residual stresses
  9. Incomplete forging Penetration

1. Unfilled sections:

The unfilled section defects can be because of Improper design of Die or Improver heat treatment of metals. 

Imagine there is two die: 1. Upper (Moveable) and 2 Lower (fixed), In between we place the heated metal to form another require shape but due to the above line listed reason the defects can occur.

2. Cold shut:

Cold shut defects occur in the forging operation when unable to fill the workpiece at the corner of the complete die.

3. Scale pits:

The scale fit defects cause low strength of the forging operation because in this defects the slag or some dust particles available in the die and we not cleaned before the forging operation so it sticks to the forged metal.

4. Die shift:

The unfilled section defects can be because of Improper design of Die or Improper adjustment of Die. To overcome this defect, we must have a good design of the die.

5. Flakes:

The flakes defects can cause because of fast cooled of the upper die which unable to makes proper forged operation.

6. Improper grain flow:

You must have to design proper die to not to perform such defects.

7. Surface cracking:

Reason for the defect is improper temperature provided. To overcome these defects you must provide the required temperature for the working metals.

8. Residual stresses:

The reason for this defect is fast cooling of improper parts. To overcome these defects you must do proper and slow cooling of forged parts.

9. Incomplete forging Penetration:

While hammering on the workpiece by hand due to improper hammering this defect generates. To overcome, you must do proper hammering on it.

Forging Advantages:

The main advantages of forging:

  1. The process gives higher strength products as compared to casting.
  2. A good number of shapes can be made through this process.
  3. The process does not require a skilled operator, anyone can do it. The only thing is to have to teach once.
  4. Low-cost operation.
  5. The Mechanical Properties like (Hardness, Strength and other) having good.
  6. It refines the structure of the metal.
  7. The forged parts can be easily welded.
  8. A reasonable degree of accuracy can be obtained in this process.

Forging Disadvantages:

The main disadvantages of forging:

  1. Secondary finishing process requires.
  2. The size might be limited because of the press size.
  3. The maintenance cost is high.
  4. The metals gots distorted if works below the required temperature.
  5. The initial cost is high. In advantage, I have mentioned operation cost is low.
  6. Some material can not be forged in the forging process.
  7. The close tolerance is might not achieve in this process or difficult to maintain.
  8. Rapid oxidization in forging of a metal surface at high-temperature results in scaling which wears the dies.
  9. While performing Forging operation by Hand you must have good energy to strike on the workpiece by the hammer.
  10. A huge safety requires because you are working near more than 2000 degree centigrade.

Forging Application:

Here is the various application of Forging:

  1. This is used in the ship-building process.
  2. This process gives higher fatigue strength so like camshaft, the crankshaft is made by the forging operation.
  3. COld forging is used for making Knife, Chisel, bolts and many more.
  4. Defense
  5. Automobile Industry
  6. Hand tools and Hardware
  7. Machinery equipment.
  8. Industrial tools.
  9. Read more application

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The most valuable and trusted Mechanical Objective book by R S Khurmi 5000+ Objective.

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