Mechanical Engg

Grinding Machine-Definition, Types, Main parts and Working, Operation

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Grinding Machine Definition:

  • A grinding machine or grinder is an industrial power tool that uses an abrasive wheel for cutting or removing the material. Or
  • It is a process of metal cutting by using a rotating abrasive wheel from the surface of the workpiece. Generally, the grinding is finishing operation to show the high surface quality, accuracy of the shape and dimension.
  • Grinding machine operation is also carried out for machining a too hard material.

Types of Grinding Machine:

1. Rough Grinders

  • Floor or bench grinders
  • Portable grinders
  • Abrasive belt grinders
  • Swing Frame grinders

2. Precision Grinders:

  • Surface Grinders
  • Cylindrical Grinders-(Plain, Universal, and Centerless)
  • Tool and Cutter Grinders
  • Internal Grinders-(Chucking, Planetary, and Centerless)
  • Special Grinding machine

There are several grinding machine types, each with a different purpose. Here’s a look at some of the most common types of precision grinding machines

Surface Grinders:

A surface grinder consists of an abrasive wheel, a chuck (a workpiece holding device), and a rotary table. The chuck is used to hold the material in place while the wheel and object are rotated to produce a smooth finish.

Cylindrical Grinders:

A cylindrical grinder is used for shaping the outside of a workpiece. These machines accept workpieces in a variety of shapes as long as they can be rotated through a central axis. In a cylindrical grinder, both the workpiece and grinding wheel are simultaneously rotated. Outside diameter grinders, internal diameter grinders, and centerless grinders are all types of cylindrical grinders.

Centerless Grinders:

A centerless grinder is a type of cylindrical grinder which uses two rotary wheels to secure the workpiece in place. Unlike a centered grinder, a centerless grinder does not make use of a spindle. The speed of the rotation of the wheels determines at what rate the material is removed.

Tool & Cutter Grinders:

A tool and cutter grinder makes use of a CNC machine tool with up to 5 axes and multiple grinding wheels. These devices are used for sharpening and producing milling cutters such as drills, endmills, and step tools. It is also widely used for producing the tools needed in the woodworking and metal cutting industries.

Plain Cylindrical Grinding Machine:

Grinding Machine

The main working parts of this grinding machine is :

Base or Bed:

  • It is a cast iron casting rests on the floor and supports the other parts which are mounted on it. The base houses the table drive mechanism and on the top of the base accurately machined guideways are provided at right angles to the table to slide on it.

Tables:

  • There are two tables, lower table, and the upper table. The lower table provides transverse movement to the work by sliding over the guideways on the bed, which can be moved by hand or power.
  • The upper table pivoted at its center over the sliding table and provided with headstock and tailstock and these can be positioned at any position along the table to hold the workpiece. The upper table can be swiveled and clamped for grinding straight or tapered surface.

Head Stock:

  • The headstock fixed over the bed and supports the workpiece by means of a dead center and drives it by means of dog or it may hold the workpiece in a chuck and drives it.

Tailstock:

  • The tailstock can be adjusted and fixed in any required position to accommodate different lengths of the workpiece.

Wheel Head:

  • It consists of a grinding wheel and its driving motor. The wheel head is mounted on a slide at the rear end of the base and moves perpendicularly to the table ways by hand or power to feed the grinding wheel to the work.

Crossfeed:

  • The grinding wheel can be fed to the work by engagement of the crossfeed control lever by hand or power.

Grinding Machine Operations:

A grinding machine is a machine tool used for producing very fine finishes or making very light cuts, using an abrasive wheel as the cutting device. Typical categories of grinding machine include:

  • Surface grinding
  • Cylindrical grinding
  • Internal grinding
  • Center grinding
  • Centerless grinding

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