Jigs and Fixtures:
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Jigs and Fixtures Definition:
- This is a work holding device which holds, supports and locates the workpiece and guides the one or more tools to perform a specific operation. In other words, this can also be defined as,
- Used for holding the tools and also guiding the workpiece.
- The main purpose of a jig is, to provide repeatability, accuracy, and interchangeability in the manufacturing of products.
- It is used in the uni-dimensional machining like drilling, tapping, and reaming etc.
- This system is found to be light and has a complex shape.
- Gauge blocks are not necessary and the cost of jigs is higher.
- Jigs are not fixed to the machine table until a large operation has to be performed.
- Fixtures are the work holding device, which holds, supports and locates the workpiece but not guides the cutting tool to perform a specific operation.
- In other words, the fixtures are only the work holding device that holds, supports and locates the workpiece in the desired position to perform any operation.
- The main purpose of the fixtures is, to hold and locate the workpiece during any machining operation and to provide repeatability, accuracy, and interchangeability in the manufacturing of products.
- Used in multi-dimensional machining like milling, grinding, turning etc.
- This system found to be heavy in weight, have simple designing.
- Gauge blocks provided for effective handling and the cost is average.
- Having specific tools which use particularly in the milling machine, shapers and slotting machine.
- Fixtures are fixed to the machine table.
- Both the jigs and the fixtures are used to reduce the nonproductive time of any mass production process.
- The principle of location or the 3-2-1 principle, CAD tools (like ProE), and FEA tools (like ANSYS) are used for the design of the jigs as well as the fixtures.
- The jig is used for guiding the cutting tool (like a drill bit), and for doing so, jigs have components like a bush, which comes in contact with the cutting tool.
- On the other hand, a fixture never comes into direct contact with the cutting tool.
- Fixtures assure the position and alignment of the workpieces for getting the required machining operation done.
Factors to be considered in designing:
- Study of component
- Study of locating elements
- Type and capacity of the machine
- Loading and unloading arrangement
- Clamping arrangement
- Study of power devices for operating and clamping element and also safety arrangement device
- The clearance between a jig and the component
- Study of tool guiding, cutter setting elements, rigidity and vibration problems
- Fool-proofing arrangement
- Study of ejecting devices, table fixing arrangement and the indexing device
- Swarf removal arrangement
Types of Jigs and Fixtures:
The type of jig and fixture totally depends on the type of work to be machined and its quality required. Some simple drill jigs are as below:
- Template jig
- Plate jig
- Diameter jig
- Channel jig
- Ring jig
- Box jig
- Leaf jig
- Angle plate jig
- Indexing jig
- Trunion jig
And The different types of fixtures are:
- Plate fixture
- Angle plate fixture
- Vise-jaw fixture
- Indexing fixture
- Multistation fixture
- Profile fixture
Difference between Jigs and Fixtures:
The differences are listed below:
|1.||It holds and locates the work as well as guides the tool.||It holds and locates the work but does not guide the tool.|
|2.||These are lighter in construction and clamping with the table is often unnecessary.||These are heavier in construction and bolted rigidly on the machine table.|
|3.||Used for holding the work and guiding the tool in drilling, reaming or tapping operation.||Used for holding the work in milling, grinding, turning or planning operation.|
|4.||Gauge blocks are not necessary.||Gauge blocks may be provided for effective handling|
|5||The cost is more.||The cost is less as compared with the jigs.|
|6.||Their designing is complex.||Their designing is simple as compared to jigs.|
Advantages, Application, and Material used for jigs and fixtures:
Advantages of jigs and fixtures:
- It eliminates the setting time required before machining.
- It increases the machining accuracy and also increases production capacity.
- Requires less skilled operation.
- They reduce the production cost.
- Increases the machine and labor utilization.
- They simplify the work handling.
- Increases the quality of production in the industry.
- They enable the quick setting of a tool and proper positioning of the work.
Application of jigs and fixtures:
- Mass production of automobile parts.
- Inspection of parts in continuous production in manufacturing industries.
- Cutting the ingots in the steel plant.
- In the refrigeration industry.
- Pump assembling process
- For drilling the flanges and drilling holes to any required angles.
- For multi-spindle machining.
- Jigs used for mass drilling, reaming and tapping.
- For guiding the tools for machining contours.
- Fixtures used for milling, mass turning, and grinding operations.
Material used for jigs and fixtures:
- Grey cast iron
- Hardened steel
- Epoxy resins
- Low melt alloy steels
- Stainless steel
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