Laser Beam Machining-Working Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application, PDF

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Laser Beam Machining:

Working Principle:

laser beam machining
Laser Beam Machining

In LBM, Laser means:

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

In this process, the Laser Beam is called as monochromatic light, which is made to focus on the workpiece to be machined by a lens to give extremely high energy density to melt and vaporize any material.

The Laser Crystal (Ruby) is in the form of a cylinder as shown in above figure or Diagram with flat reflecting ends which are placed in a flash lamp coil of about 1000W.

The Flash is simulated with the high-intensity white light from Xenon.

The Crystal get excited and emits the laser beam which is focused on the workpiece a by using the lens.

The beam produced is extremely narrow and can be focused to a pinpoint area with a power density of 1000 kW/cm2. Which produces high heat and the portion of the metal is melted and vapourises.

Application, Advantage, Disadvantage of Laser Beam Machining:


  • This process is used for making very small holes.
  • Complicated welding of non-conductive and refractory materials.
  • Mass macro machining production.
  • Selective heat treating of materials.
  • This is used in surgery.
  • Micro-drilling operation.
  • Photography in medical science.
  • Spectroscopic Science.

Advantage / Merits:

  • Any material can be machined including non-metal.
  • There is no direct contact between the tool and the work.
  • There is no tool wear.
  • Soft materials like rubber, plastic can be machined.
  • Extremely small holes can be machined.
  • No mechanical force on the work.
  • Heat affected zone is very small.
  • Heat treated and magnetic materials can be welded, without losing their properties.

Disadvantage / De-merits:

  • The overall efficiency of the machining is very low.
  • It is limited to thin sheets.
  • It’s having a high cost.
  • A very low rate of metal-removing.
  • Life of the flash lamp is short.
  • It is not possible to remove a large number of metals.
  • The machined holes are not round and straight.
  • Not able to drill too deep holes.

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