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So, First we start with the sequence:
- Introduction, Definition,
- Operation and Specification of lathe machine.
The Lathe Machine is an ancient tool. At the very early stage this machine was developed around 1300 BC at that time there was not developed so many parts expect headstock and Tailstock. But during the industrial revolution Metalworking lathe evolved into heavier machines with thicker, more rigid parts.
Between 19 and 20 century the electric motor is replaced line shafting as a power source.
Then in 1950, the servomechanism is applied to control lathe and other machine tools by numeric, Direct numerical control machine.
Nowadays the manually controlled machine exists like a CNC machine and even do with the help of feed mechanism the lathe machine operates manually.
Definition of Lathe Machine:
A lathe machine is a machine tool which is used to remove metals from a workpiece to give a desired shape and size.
Lathe Machines are used in metalworking, wood turning, metal spinning, thermal spraying, glass working, and parts reclamation.
The various other operations that you can perform with the help of Lathe Machine can include sanding, cutting, knurling, drilling, and deformation of tools that are employed in creating objects which have symmetry about the axis of rotation.
Lathe Machine Parts:
- Head Stock
- Tool Post
- Lead Screw
- Guide Ways
- Compound rest
- Hand Wheel
- Feed Rod
Bed in the lathe machine is the main body of the machine. All main components are mounted on it.
The bed is usually made up of cast iron due to its high compressive strength and high lubrication quality.
It is made by a casting process and molted on floor area.
Chuck in the lathe machine is used to hold the workspace. This is fastened on the spindle, which rotates the chuck and the workpiece.
There are four jaws and three-jaw chuck but according to the requirement of the machine they used.
Head Stock is the holding device in a lathe machine.
The headstock is the main body parts which are placed at the left side of the bed.
The Headstock is also made up of cast iron.
Tool Post on a lathe machine is fastened on the carriage.
The main work of tool post is to hold the tools at an accurate position and tool holder mounted on it.
It also knew as a power screw.
This locates at the bottom side of the bed, which is used to move the carriage automatically during the thread cutting operations.
This locates between the headstock and tailstock.
It is used to hold and move the tool post on the bed vertically and horizontally.
It slides on the guideways. The carriage is also made up of cast iron.
Legs are used to carry all the loads of the lathe machine.
It locates the floor which prevents vibration.
An apron is attached to the carriage and hangs over the front side of the lathe bed.
It is useful in providing power and hand-feed to both carriage and cross-slide.
It is also used to provide power feed to the carriage during thread cutting through two half nuts.
The main function of guideways in a lathe machine is to guides the movement of carriage and tailstock.
This is the main part of the lathe machine which holds and rotates the chuck.
It is placed on the right-hand side of the bed.
The main function of the tailstock to support the job when required.
The main function of the tailstock is to lock the workpiece while performing a drilling operation.
The compound rest in a lathe machine which is used to fix the single point cutting tools while performing different lathe operation.
Hand Wheel is used for moving tailstock forward or backward.
Feed rod is a power transmission mechanism used for precise linear movement of the carriage along the longitudinal axis of the lathe.
Lathe Machine Operations:
3. Step turning
8. Taper turning
9. Thread cutting
So we will start from the beginning of the lathe machine operations.
All the lathe machine operations are carried out by single-point cutting tools.
The process of making a flat surface on a lathe machine is called facing.
The job is held on a faceplate or chuck and the tool is fed at right angles to the bed to obtain flat surfaces.
To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be as close as possible to the jaws of the chuck.
Tuning is the operation when metal removal takes place from the surface of the cylindrical workpiece. In this process, a tool is fed along the axis of the spindle.
Turning is the removal of metal from the outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical workpiece.
Turning is used to reduce the diameter of the workpiece.
and the Step turning is an operation performed on a lathe machine where the excess material is removed from the workpiece to obtain various steps of different diameters.
It removes the burrs and sharp edges, and thus makes the handling safe.
This can be done by a form tool having an angle equal to chamfer which is generally kept at 45°.
The term grooving usually applies to a process of forming a narrow cavity of a certain depth, on a cylinder, cone, or a face of the part.
The forming process is the operation or process where the workpiece is reshaped without adding or removing material, and its mass remains unchanged.
In the knurling process, some serration(meaning: a tooth or point of a serrated edge or surface) is formed on the workpiece by deforming the top layer on the lathe.
The rough surface produced by knurling is useful for providing proper gripping.
The taper turning is a lathe operation for producing a conical surface by a gradual reduction in the diameter of a cylindrical workpiece.
A thread is a helically shaped groove formed on the cylindrical surface of a workpiece.
Thread cutting is an operation performed on a lathe to produce threads by using a tool whose shape will be the same as that of the thread.
Types of screw threads, Screw thread nomenclature, Lathe setting for thread cutting, Types of gear trains Simple gear train Compound gear train.
Drilling is the process of making holes in the workpiece with the help of drill tools.
The drill is held on the tailstock and the drilling operation is carried out by advancing the drill in the workpiece by rotating the handle of the tailstock.
on a lathe, Drilling is generally done in the center of the workpiece.
The process of enlarging the hole in the workpiece is called reaming.
The process of removal of stock from a hole in the workpiece is called boring.
Holes are bored by the single point tool. The cutting tool shaves off a thin layer of material to accurate size.
Tapping is the process of cutting a thread inside a hole so that a cap screw or bolt can be threaded into the hole. Also, it is used to make threads on nuts.
Tapping is done with a tool called a “Tap”.
This Parting process is used for cutting off the parts from the parent material.
The feed is given in the direction perpendicular to the axis of revolution.
Specification of Lathe Machine:
A lathe machine is specified by the following:
- The height of the centers measured from the lathe bed.
- Swing diameter over the bed. This the largest diameter of the workpiece which will revolve without touching the bed. It is equal twice the height of centers from the bed.
- Swing diameter over the carriage. It is the largest diameter that can revolve over the cross-slide. This always less than the swing diameter over the bed.
- Maximum bar diameter. This is the maximum diameter that will pass through the headstock spindle.
- Length of the bed.
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