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Before going to explain the different-different properties of metals. Let’s just have some knowledge about the Metals and Alloys.
Metals and Alloys:
The metals are defined as the element substances found in nature. They are available chemically combined with other elements.
Metals are extracted from there ores.
The most commonly used metals in engineering are aluminum, copper, tin, lead, zinc, magnesium. Generally, metals are a good conductor of heat and electric current. They are opaque and can be polished to high luster.
Pure metals are soft they are seldom used in practice.
To make the metal useful for engineering application, some desirable properties are imparted to the metals by the addition of some other metals or elements like carbon, Boron, Silicon, Phosphorus, etc such a combined metal is called alloy.
It is defined as the homogenous mixtures of two or more chemical elements at least one of which is a metal to obtain certain desirable qualities than those possessed by original metals themselves.
An alloy the metal which will be in large portion to which other elements are added is called base metal and the added elements are themselves called alloying elements.
Some of the most common alloys in engineering practice are iron, wrought iron and steel all of them are alloys of iron and carbon in varying proportions,
brass- alloy of Copper and Zinc
The bronze alloy of Copper and Tin
Gun metal-alloy of Copper, Tin, and Zinc
and There are some more also.
Advantages of alloy over pure metals:
Alloys are stronger than pure metals.
Alloys are harder and more durable than pure metals.
Alloys can we cast since their melting point are lower.
Alloys have higher resistance to the action of acids.
Alloys are highly resistant to corrosion.
we discussed metal and alloys because the next topic we going to study is totally based on the metals and alloys.
Properties of Metals:
The properties of the metal are defined as the special qualities or characteristics of metals that determine their suitability for a specific engineering application.
Although metals have a wide range of properties, the knowledge of the important properties will be helpful in the section of the metals for a specific application.
Few of the properties of the metals which are very important are:
- Mechanical properties of metals
- Electrical properties
- Thermal properties
- Magnetic properties
- Chemical properties
Above all the 5 properties going to explain in details each by each. So,
1. Mechanical properties:
Mechanical properties of metal indicate the nature of its inherent behavior under the action of the external force.
Or, we can say mechanical properties are the properties of the metal which are associated with its ability to resist failure under the action of external forces.
Some of the most important Mechanical properties of the metal are:
This property of the metals by virtue of which they are able to regain the original shape and size after the removal of the load is called elasticity. It is a very important property, since all cutting tools and metallic objects to maintain their original shape while working and after the removal of the applied force.
For every metal, there will be a maximum limit up to which the force applied will not leave any deformation after it ceases to exist. This is the maximum limit is called the elastic limit.
If the Force Applied beyond the elastic limit the metal will retain the deformation even after removal of applied forces.
The plasticity may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which a permanent deformation takes place without fracture whenever it is subjected to the action of external forces.
Most of the metals have been found to possess good plasticity. This property is very important in forming shaping an extruding operation.
Some metals are shaped in cold conditions, for example, deep drawing of sheets.
Many metals are shaped in hot condition, for example, rolling of structural Steels shapes and the forging of certain machine parts.
The ductility may be defined as the property of metals by virtue of which they can be drawn into wires or elongated before rupture takes place.
This property depends largely upon tenacity and to some extent on hardness. Ductility of a metal is higher when cold than hot, hence wires are drawn in cold condition.
The following common metals have ductility in decreasing order:
Gold, Platinum, silver, iron, copper, aluminum, nickel, Zinc, tin, and lead.
The bitterness may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which it will fracture suddenly without any appreciable deformation.
Metals which are less ductile will be brittle. Cast iron is one of the best examples for brittle metals.
The hardness may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which resist, abrasion, indentation, and scratch by relatively harder materials.
It is expressed related to the hardness of some standard minerals. Diamond, quartz, corundum, etc. are the harder minerals.
The standard test to determine the hardness of metals are Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers.
The hardness is an important property for cutting tool materials and the metallic component which have to resist wear while working
Toughness may be defined as the property of the metal by virtue of which we can observe maximum energy before fracture takes place.
It is measured by the amount of energy that is a unit volume of material has after being stressed up to the point of fracture. Toughness decreases with increase in temperature.
It is a very important property that is considered while selecting the material for power press, punch, pneumatic, hammer, etc.
Stiffness is also known as the rigidity of metal.
It may be defined as the property by virtue of which the metal will not deform or deflect when the load is applied.
Although still is stronger than cast iron, the later is preferred for machine beds and frames because it is more rigid and less likely to deflect with consequent loss of alignment and accuracy.
Resilience may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which it stores energy and resists shock and impact loads.
It is measured by the amount of energy that can be stored per unit volume after stressed up to the elastic limit. The material of higher resistance is used for spring.
The creep may be defined as the property of metal by virtue of which it deforms continuously and slowly under a steady load.
Metal generally exhibit creep at Higher temperatures. The creep is considered as an important property while designing the part of IC engine and turbine blades as they are subjected to high pressure at high temperature.
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