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A Reciprocating engine is a classification IC (Internal combustion engine) in which the piston moves up and down which is also called as Top dead center to Bottom dead center that converts pressure into rotational motion and the further the charge been used in the engines.
Classification of Reciprocating Engine:
The reciprocating engine has been categorized into a various category:
1. According to the thermodynamic cycle:
- OTTO or Constant Volume Cycle (In this the energy released during the combustion of a fuel occurs at constant volume.)
- DIESEL or Constant Pressure Cycle (In this the energy released during the combustion of a fuel occurs at constant pressure.)
- DUAL or Limited Pressure Cycle (In this the energy released by combustion of a fuel partly at constant volume and pressure.)
2. Number of Stroke Per Cycle:
- 4 Stroke engine (In 4 stroke the cycle of engine complete 4 strokes of piston whereas)
- 2 Stroke engine (In 2 stroke the cycle of engine completes 2 strokes of the piston)
3. Ignition System:
- Spark Ignition (SI) Engine (A homogenous mixture of air and fuel vapor is supplied to the engine and the combustion is initiated by spark plug)
- Compression-Ignition (CI) Engine (Air sucked inside the cylinder is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature, This temperature exceeds the self-ignition temperature of the fuel.)
The engine cycle of both SI and CI engine can be completed in 2 strokes or 4 strokes of the piston.
4. Fuel Used:
- Petrol (The engine works on Petrol fuel such as Motorcycle )
- Oil or Diesel (engine works on Diesel)
- Gas (CNG, LPG, PRODUCER GAS)
- Multi-Fuel Engine (Use gasoline or diesel oil for starting the engine and kerosene as there primary fuel)
5. Cooling System:
- Water Cooling (Engine cooled by circulating water)
- Air Cooling (Engine cooled by blowing atmospheric air over the hot surface)
6. Multicylinder Engine:
- The power output of an engine is directly proportional to its speed.
Terms or Overview or Nomenclature of Reciprocating Engine:
The below figure shown of the Reciprocating Engine which describes the complete term and Overview of an engine:
This is a Piston-Cylinder device has a wide range of application.
The air or air-fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder through INTAKE VALE and the combustion products are expelled from the cylinder through the EXHAUST VALVE.
This is the powerhouse of the vast majority of automobiles such as trucks, aircraft, ship, electric power, generator and so on.
The piston reciprocates in the cylinder between the Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dear Center (BDC).
The stroke is defined as the largest distance in one direction traveled by the piston from TDC TO BDC is called a Stroke of the engine.
The diameter of the piston is called BORE.
The minimum volume formed in the cylinder when the piston is at TDC is called Clearance volume.
The volume displaced by the piston as its move between TDC to BDC is called Displacement volume.
The ratio of the maximum volume formed in the cylinder to the minimum (Clearance) volume is called Compression Ratio.
- This compression ratio is denoted by rk = (Vmax or BDC ) / (Vmin or TDC )
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