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Reciprocating Pump Definition:
- A reciprocating pump is a hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.
- This is a positive displacement pump.
- Here a certain volume of liquid is collected in the enclosed volume and is discharged using pressure to the required application.
- Reciprocating pumps are more suitable for low volumes of flow at high pressures.
- The reciprocating pump having two types: 1. Single acting reciprocating pump and 2. Double acting reciprocating pump.
Main Parts or Component of Reciprocating Pump:
- Suction Pipe
- Suction Valve
- Delivery Pipe
- Delivery Valve
- Piston and Piston Rod
- Crank and Connecting Rod
- Air Vessel
- It is used to suck the water from the water reservoir to the cylinder.
- It connects the inlet of the pump with the water tank.
- The suction valve is a non-return valve which means only one directional flow is possible in this type of valve.
- This is placed between the suction pipe inlet and the cylinder.
- During suction of liquid, it is opened and during discharge, it is closed.
- It is a pipe which is used to deliver the water from the cylinder to the desired location.
- It connects the outlet of the pump to the tank where the water is to be delivered.
- Delivery valve also non-return valve placed between the cylinder and delivery pipe outlet.
- It is in a closed position during suction and in opened position during discharging of liquid.
- A hollow cylinder made of steel alloy or cast iron.
- An arrangement of piston and piston rod is inside this cylinder.
Piston and Piston Rod:
- A piston is a solid type cylinder part which moves backward and forwards inside the hollow cylinder, to perform suction and delivery of liquid.
- Piston rod helps the piston to its linear motion.
Crank and Connecting Rod:
- Crank is a solid circular disc which is connected to the power source like motor, engine etc, for its rotation.
- Connecting rod connects the crank to the piston, as a result, the rotational motion of crank gets converted into linear motion of the piston.
- A strainer is provided at the end of the suction pipe to prevent the entrance of solids from a water source into the cylinder.
- Air vessels are connected to both suction and delivery pipes to eliminate the frictional head and to give uniform discharge rate.
The reciprocating pump consists of a piston which moves forward and backward in a close-fitting cylinder. The movement of the piston is obtained by connecting the piston rod to crank by means of a connecting rod. The crank is rotated by means of an electric motor.
Suction and Delivery pipes with a suction valve and a delivery valve are connected to the cylinder. The suction and delivery valves are non return valves, which allow the water to flow in one direction only.
The suction valve allows water from the suction pipe to the cylinder and where the delivery valve allows water from the cylinder to the delivery pipe only.
When crank starts rotating, the piston moves in the cylinder. when a crank is at A, the piston is at the extreme left position in the cylinder. As the crank is rotating from A to C,(θ=0º to 180º) the piston is moving towards the right in the cylinder. The movement of the piston towards the right creates a partial vacuum in the cylinder. But on the surface of the liquid in the sump atmospheric pressure is acting, which is more than the pressure inside the cylinder.
Thus the liquid is forced into the suction pipe from the sump. This liquid opens the suction valve and enters into the cylinder.
When a crank is rotating from C to A (θ=180º to 360º), the piston from extreme right position starts moving toward left in the cylinder.
The movement of the piston towards the left increases the pressure of the liquid inside the cylinder more than the atmospheric pressure.
Hence Suction valve closes and the delivery valve opens. The liquid is forced into the delivery pipe and is raised to a Required Height.
Application, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Reciprocating Pump:
The main application is:
- Oil drilling operations
- Pneumatic pressure systems
- Light oil pumping and
- Feeding small boilers condensate return, etc
1. High pressure is obtained at the outlet.
2. Priming process is not needed in this pump.
3. Reciprocating Pump provides high suction lift.
4. It is also used for air.
1. It requires high maintenance, because of more wear and tear of the parts.
2. Low flow rate (it discharges a low amount of water).
3. They are heavy and bulky in size.
4. The initial cost is High.
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