Shaper Machine-Definition, Parts, Working Principle Diagram, Types of Shaper Machine , Application, Advantages, PDF

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Shaper Machine:

The Shaper Machine is developed by Samuel Bentham between 1791 and 1793. A very wide place (Like Industry, Machine Shops) shaper machine is used in the 19th and 20th century and still using in the workshop for producing Horizontal, Vertical or Inclined flat surfaces.

The modern shaper has been developed to produce contoured surface also.

Contoured Surface: The contoured surface can be curved or slop on a material.

Definition:

The Shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool basically used to produce Horizontal, Vertical or Inclined flat surfaces.

The shaper holds the Single point cutting tool in ram and workpiece is fixed over the table. The ram holding the tool reciprocates over the workpiece and metal is cut during the forward stroke called as cutting stroke and

No metal is cut during its return stroke is called an Idle stroke.

The feed is given at the end of the cutting stroke. Generally, the cutting stroke is carried out at slow speed and the idle stroke is carried at high speed with the help of quick return mechanism.

Shaper Machine Parts:

The below diagram is shown is a principal part of the Shaper Machine.

Shaper Machine

1. Base:

The Base is designed to take the entire load of the machine tool and it is bolted to the floor of the shop.

This is made of grey cast iron to resist vibration and to take the compressive load.

2. Column:

The column is a Box like casting made up of cast iron and mounted on a base.

It is provided with accurately machined guideways on the top on which the ram reciprocates.

The guideways are also provided on the front vertical face for the movement of cross rail. The column encloses the ram driving mechanism.

3. Cross rail:

The cross rail is mounted on the ground vertical guideways of the column.

It consists of two parallel guideways on its top perpendicular to the ram axis is called as a saddle to move the table in crosswise direction by means of a feed screw.

The table can be raised or lowered to accommodate different sizes of the job by rotating elevating screw which causes the cross rail to slide up and down on the vertical face of the column.

4. Saddle:

It is mounted on the cross rail to hold the table firmly on its top.

The crosswise movement of the saddle causes the table to move crosswise direction by rotating the crossfeed screw.

5. Table:

The table is mounted on a saddle. The table can be moved crosswise by rotating crossfeed rod and vertically by rotating the elevating screw.

The table is a box like casting with accurately machined top and side surfaces. These surfaces having t-slots for clamping the work.

In Universal shaper, the table maybe swiveled on a horizontal axis and its upper part may be tilted up or down.

In heavy Shaper, the front face of the table is supported by adjustable table support to give more rigidity.

6. Ram:

It is a reciprocating member of the shaper which holds the tool and the reciprocates on the guideways on the top of the column by means of quick return motion mechanism.

It houses the screwed shaft for altering the position of the RAM with respect to the work. The RAM is in semi-cylindrical form and heavily ribbed inside to make it more rigid.

7. Tool Head:

The tool head holds the cutting tool firmly and provides both vertical and angular movement to the tool with the help of down feed screw handle.

The head allows the tool to have an automatic relief during the return stroke.

The vertical slide of a tool head consists of a swivel base which is graduated in degrees. So, the vertical slide can set at any angle with the work surface.

Tool Head Shaper Machine

The amount of feed or depth of cut may be adjusted by a micrometer dial on top of the down feed screw.

Apron consisting of clapper box and tool post is clamped on the vertical slide by the screw.

The apron Can be swiveled upon the apron swivel pin towards left or right. The clapper box houses the clapper block by means of a hinge pin.

The tool post is mounted on the clapper block. During forward cutting stroke the clapper block keeps the rigid support to the tool by fitting securely into clapper box and while returning stroke the tools slide over the work by lifting, the block out of clapper boxes shown in the above figure.

Recommended Book:

Working Principle:

This Shaper Machine works on the principle of Quick return Motion Mechanism.

quick return motion mechanism

What happens in quick return motion mechanism is,

In the forward stroke, the Slider moves fast and removing the material from the workpiece. Whereas,

In the return stroke the Slider moves faster than the forward stroke that means Quick return, it takes less time to return, called a return stroke.

Working of Shaper Machine:

Shaper Machine
Shaper Machine

The shaper machine in the tool head it holds the Single point cutting tool in ram and workpiece is fixed over the table. The ram holding the tool reciprocates over the workpiece and metal is cut during the forward stroke called as cutting stroke and

No metal is cut during its return stroke is called an Idle stroke.

The feed is given at the end of the cutting stroke. Generally, the cutting stroke is carried out at slow speed and the idle stroke is carried at high speed with the help of quick return mechanism.

Types of Shaper Machine:

1. Based on the type of driving mechanism types of shaper machines.

Crank type
Geared type
Hydraulic type
2. Based on ram travel types of shaper machines.
Horizontal
Vertical
3. Based on the table design types of shaper machines.
Standard
Universal
4. Based on cutting stroke types of shaper machines.
Push type
Draw type

Details will be uploaded soon.

Application, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Shaper Machine:

Application:

  • To generate straight and flat surfaces.
  • To smooth rough surfaces.
  • To make internal splines.
  • To make gear teeth.
  • To make dovetail slides.
  • To make key ways in pullies or gears.
  • Machining of die, punches, straight and curved slots.

Advantages:

  • The single point tool used which is inexpensive or we can say low tooling cost.
  • The cutting stroke having a definite stopping point.
  • The work can be held easily in the shaper machine.
  • The set up is very quick and easy and also can be readily changed from one job to another job.

Disadvantages:

  • By nature is a slow machine because of its straight line forward and return strokes the single point cutting tool requires Several strokes to complete a work. (They are slow)
  • The cutting speed is not usually very high speeds of reciprocating motion due to high inertia force developed in the motion of the units and components of the machine.
  • They are inefficient.

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