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This is a non-conventional machining process in which the Harder material is machined.
This machines having great properties like:
1. High degree of accuracy and Surface finish.
2. The high rate of metal removal and so on.
This is Mechanical machining methods. The other mechanical machining method is Abrasive jet Machining.
In Ultrasonic machining, waves are generated by means of magnetostrictive effects which is further converted into mechanical vibration.
“Magnetostriction” means the change in dimensions occurring in ferromagnetic due to an alternating magnetic field.
No Heat is generated in this process and the tool vibrates longitudinally at 20 to 30 kHz with an amplitude between 0.01 to 0.06 mm.
The tool has the same shape as the cavity to be machined.
Parts or Equipment:
The Ultrasonic Machine consists of different parts as follows:
1. Power Supply:
To starts, the machining process power is required. This is essential. As the diagram showing the first is connected to the power supply.
2. Electromechanical Transducer:
An electromechanical transducer connected to the AC supply.
The transducer converts an electrical signal to mechanical signal whereas electromechanical transducer used to generates the mechanical vibration.
3. Velocity Transformer:
It holds the tool firmly.
The tool should be designed as like when the operation is performed does not lead to brittle fracture of it.
Therefore the tool is made of tough, strong and ductile materials like steel, stainless steel or HSS (High stainless steel), Mild Steel, etc.
5. Abrasive slurry:
A water-based slurry of abrasive particle used as an abrasive slurry in this machining.
Aluminum oxide, Silicon carbide, Boron carbide are used as an abrasive particle in this slurry.
6. Abrasive Gun:
An abrasive gun is used to supply an abrasive slurry., which is a mixture of abrasive grain and the water in between tool-workpiece interface under a definite pressure.
As the machines perform several techniques like:
- Machining very precise and intricate shaped articles.
- Drilling the round holes of any shape.
- Grinding the brittle materials.
- Profiling the holes.
- Trepaning and coining
The various workpiece can be used for several operations.
Working Principle or Diagram:
The figure shown above is the line diagram.
It consists of an electromechanical transducer connected to the AC supply.
Velocity transformer which holds the tool firmly.
An abrasive gun is used to supply an abrasive slurry, which is a mixture of abrasive grain and the water in between tool-workpiece interface under a definite pressure.
When the AC power is supplied with high frequency, the transducer starts vibrating longitudinally by magnetostriction, which is transmitted to the penetrating tool through a mechanical focusing device called Velocity transformer.
As the tool vibrates it is pressed on the work surface with light force and allowing the abrasive slurry to flow through between tool-workpiece interface.
The Impact force arising out of the vibration of the tool end and the flow of abrasive slurry causing thousand of microscopic grains to remove from work material by abrasion.
Abrasive like Aluminium Oxide, Silicon Carbide can be used.
The tool is made of soft ductile material like copper or brass, soft steel or stainless steel.
Machining very precise and intricate shaped articles.
Drilling the round holes of any shape.
Grinding the brittle materials.
Profiling the holes.
Trepaning and coining
Slicing and broaching hard materials.
Machining the glasses, ceramics.
Machining the precise mineral stones, tungsten.
Piercing of dies and for parting off operation.
This is precise enough to be used in the creation of microelectromechanical system components such as micro-structured glass wafers and
Diamond is cut for the desired shapes.
Advantages / Merits:
This process is used for drilling both circular and non-circular holes in very hard materials like carbide, ceramics, etc.
This process is best suited for brittle materials.
The machining operation is simple and requires less time.
This process is economical.
Glass, Ceramic, tungsten land semi-precious stones can be machined.
A semi-skilled operator can operate the machine.
Better efficiency can be achieved.
Good surface finish.
It is suitable for both conducting and non-conducting materials.
High accuracy can be achieved.
Disadvantages / Demerits / Limitation:
Low material cutting rate.
High power consumption.
Low penetration rate.
This process is limited to the machine surface of small size.
Shorter tool life.
Ultrasonic vibration machining can only be used on materials with a hardness value of at least 45 HRC (Rockwell Hardness).
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