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## Venturi Meter:

This is a device or component which is used for measuring the rate of flow of liquid through pipes.

The rate of Fluid = Discharge.

Venture Meter is first developed by G.B. Venturi in 1797.

It works on the basic principle of Bernoulli’s Equation.

**Bernoulli’s Equation: **In Simple, this is defined as the sum of Pressure energy, Kinetic energy per unit volume and Potential energy per unit volume equal in the same direction.

### Definition:

Venturi Meter is a device in which pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy and It used for measuring the flow rate (Discharge) of the system.

**It consists of 3 parts:**

- Converging cone or Diameter (the area is Decreasing)
- Throat Diameter (the area is constant)
- Diverging cone (the area is increasing)

### Parts:

let’s consider a pipe in which there is venturi meter is fixed. In the pipe fluid is flowing so first it enters into a converging cone then Thorat and then Diverging Cone.

#### Converging cone:

When water flowing through this cone the area is decreasing, therefore, the speed of flowing water increases and pressure decreases.

#### Throat Diameter:

When water flowing through this cone the area remains constant therefore the speed of flowing water and pressure remains constant.

#### Diverging cone:

When water flowing through this cone the area is increasing, therefore, the speed of flowing water increases and pressure decreases.

### Working Principle / Diagram of Venturi Meter:

This works on the basic principle of Bernoulli’s Equation.

### Derivation / Formula of Venturi Meter:

The derivation has been solved on paper because their several rotations cannot be typed here.

In the figure, the water flowing in the pipe (flow in) comes with section 1 and flow out goes with section 3.

**The several rotations are:**

_{A1}= Inlet area in m^{2}.- D
_{1}= Diameter of Inlet. - D
_{2}= Diameter of the throat. - A2 = Throat area in m
^{2}. _{P1}= Pressure at the inlet in N/m^{2}._{P2}= Pressure at the throat in N/m^{2}._{V1}= Velocity at inlet in m/sec_{V2}= Velocity at throat in m/sec.- h = Pressure heads.
- C
_{d}= Coefficient of Discharge. This is unitless. - Q
_{act}= Actual discharge in m^{3}/sec. - Q
_{the}= Theoretical discharge in m^{3}/sec.

The other way to find **h (Pressure heads)** by using differential U–Tube Manometer:

The liquid in the manometer is heavier than the flowing fluid in the pipe.

- x = Difference of the heavier liquid column in U-tube
- S
_{h }= Specific gravity of the heavier liquid. - S
_{0}= Specific gravity of flowing fluid. - S
_{l}= Specific gravity of the lighter liquid.

**h = x [ (S _{h} / S_{0}) – 1]**

The liquid in the manometer is lighter than the flowing fluid in the pipe.

**h = x [1- (S _{l} / S_{0}) ]**

### Application / Uses of Venturi Meter:

1. Calculating the flow rate of fluid that is Discharge in the pipe.

2. Plumbing.

3. Carburetor.

4. The flow of chemical in pipelines.

5. This is widely used in large diameter pipes such as found in the waste treatment process.

6. Also used in the medicine department for the measure, the flow rate of blood in arteries (धमनियों ).

7. This also used where high-pressure recovery is required.

### Advantages / Merits of Venturi Meter:

1. Power loss is very less.

2. This can be used where a small head is available.

3. High reproducibility (the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment is repeated).

4. Accuracy is high over wide flow ranges.

5. This can also be used for a compressible and incompressible fluid.

6. This device is easy to operate.

7. The coefficient of Discharge (C_{d} ) for the venturi meter is high.

8. This is widely used for high flow rate (Discharge).

### Disadvantages / Demerits / Limitation of Venturi Meter:

1. The installation cost of a venturi meter is high.

2. There are little difficulties while maintenance.

3. This device can not be used where the pipe has a small diameter of 76.2 mm.

4. Non-linear.

5. This system occupies more space as compared to the orifice meter.

6. It has a limitation of lower Reynolds number of 150,000.

7. It is expensive and a little bulky.

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